VoIP and Telephone Systems Explained
VoIP and Telephone Systems Explained
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) makes it possible for us to communicate with IP-based phones—including wireless, desktop, and video. It also enables us to integrate a videophone or stand-alone telephone with a personal computer and provides functions such as electronic white-boarding, text chat, and application-sharing. In fact, it makes it possible for us to use one high-speed Internet connection for voice, data, and video communication, and this is generally referred to as “convergence.”
Convergence has sparked the interest of both the individual consumer and large organizations because it is a means of reducing their IT deployment and maintenance costs. With VoIP, they are free to choose from a wide range of service providers, and they are no longer limited in those choices by geographic restrictions. This is possible because the voice data is sent to another computer via an IP network and played there, rather than being stored locally.
How voice works with VoIP
Algorithms known as CODECs are optimized to compress voice (which reduces the required bandwidth significantly) and enhance spoken words simultaneously. The computer system records the sound and compresses it into tiny samples that are gathered into larger segments and inserted in IP data packets and then transmitted via the IP network. These packets generally contain between 20 and 30 milliseconds of audio, and when some of the packets are lost, the CODECs replace them with audio the human ear can accept. Usually, packets are sent more than once in order to solve this problem, and at times, information bits from packets that have already been sent are included in those that follow, and it is also possible to reconstruct a lost packet by using this method.
Computer systems usually measure packet delays with the expectation that they will stay relatively constant. This means that variations in delay, known as “jitters,” can result in temporary glitches or choppy voices on the network, and VoIP devices automatically create buffers to compensate for them.
How video works with VoIP
Transmission of video works in a similar way, and VoIP is thought to be a promising technology because adding video or some other media is fairly uncomplicated. Some characteristics, including higher bandwidth needs and frame refresh, are related to video alone, but the process is essentially the same.
What VoIP requires
A protocol must be established so that computers can find one another so that the information packets will flow properly from one communication device to another, and there is also an agreed-upon (payload) format for the media packets themselves.
Along with desktop computers, VoIP has also been successfully implemented in many other hardware devices such analog terminal adapters (ATAs), IP phones, and gateways. This means that if users migrate to VoIP, they can do it with the knowledge that traditional landline devices can interface with today’s IP networks, saving them time and money. Since the bandwidth requirements for voice and data have skyrocketed, voice can get a “free ride” with this system when it comes to management and expense.
VoIP networks use the following to do the job:
- Database services – used for translating between addressing schemes found in two disparate systems and locating the endpoints.
- Signaling – used for coordinating the activities of the network components involved in completing a call between the endpoints.
- Call connect/disconnect mechanisms – used for the audio content of a message.
- CODEC operations – used for converting analog wave-forms to digital data for easy transport.
New services provided by VoIP
Video telephony makes VoIP unique, and some service providers now offer video terminals to allow subscribers to phone family and friends with video-enabled phones. Also, users have the possibility of launching phone calls from a PC to see if a friend or family member is available, controlling telephone services on their PC, and so on. In the business world, VoIP enables real-time text communication, white-boarding and application sharing, which help to improve productivity.
VoIP phones and devices
Used to send and receive calls, VoIP phones can be hardware-based and resemble traditional phones, or soft-ware based “softphones.” Both types of devices offer the same essential features, but softphones are usually run on a notebook computer. The latter are intended for mobile users who connect to their organization with a Secure Sockets Layer-based network. Once the connection is made, they can send and receive calls on a PBX as if they were onsite.
VoIP consoles offer a range of control capabilities from holding calls, call transfer, and auto-attendant to the more advanced flash downloads for upgrading telephone software and “designated class of service.” They are also capable of interacting with a so-called legacy phone or VoIP phone using a voice gateway.